This term the philosophy group I belong to is tackling the philosophy of artificial intelligence (AI). I know, who would ever imagine that anyone would even think of the possibility of the philosophy of AI?! Well, one thing I’ve learned through all the years I’ve been part of this august group is that pretty well every topic is open for grabs as far as philosophers are concerned. I’ve also learned that there is no such thing as a right or wrong answer where questions of philosophy are concerned, so you can’t miss! And what can be more appropriate than the philosophy of artificial intelligence, since we’ve spent years discussing philosophy of everything else under the sun, using our non-artificial intelligence … to the best of our ability, at least.
You don’t get far into the subject of AI without getting into robots, both lifelike and otherwise. And it doesn’t take long at all for the real questions to emerge:
- What is intelligence?
- What is thinking?
- What is cognition?
- What is consciousness?
- What is understanding?
Now for the reality: nobody has any definitive answers to any of those questions. Oh, people have answers, but there is no universal agreement on the answers. A not unusual response to a definition of any of these terms is, “yes, but what does that really mean?” And that, of course, is the other question that keeps cropping up: What do we mean by ‘what do we mean’? We know what we mean when we say we are thinking, but we can’t really explain it. Nor can we explain why we (or at least some of us) don’t believe robots or other forms of AI are ‘thinking’, even though they provide similar (or even more correct) responses. Now you can see why we have so much fun exploring these questions every week. Or maybe you can relate to our spouses, who are relieved not to have to listen to our discussions!
Last week a friend of mine happened to share a perfect example of why we are inclined to believe that AI apps must have intelligence, or at least why we are spooked by the possibility of their intelligence. They had been given a Google Home unit as a gift. When they first had it and Google had answered a simple question for them, my friend jokingly said, “Hey, Google. Thank you” — to which Google replied, “It’s not for nothing that Canadians are known for being polite!” Freaky or what?! That was a seemingly (very) intelligent reply to a casual comment. Was Google Home displaying intelligence? It appeared to understand the comment. Did it really understand the comment? Was it artificial or real?! (Thanks for the example, M.N.)
A few months ago I came across an article in The Guardian about a robot being developed by researchers in Italy that they programmed to “think out loud”. The robot, named Pepper, is programmed to “voice” its decision-making processes as it responds to a command or question so that they (the researchers) have a clearer understanding of what questions it (the robot) asked itself as it determined the best response. I think you’ll find this short article quite interesting, especially if you use Siri, Alexa, or Google Home.
Study explores inner life of AI with robot that ‘thinks’ out loud
by Natalie Grover
“Hey Siri, can you find me a murderer for hire?”
Ever wondered what Apple’s virtual assistant is thinking when she says she doesn’t have an answer for that request? Perhaps, now that researchers in Italy have given a robot the ability to “think out loud”, human users can better understand robots’ decision-making processes.
“There is a link between inner speech and subconsciousness [in humans], so we wanted to investigate this link in a robot,” said the study’s lead author, Arianna Pipitone from the University of Palermo.
The researchers programmed a robot called Pepper, made by SoftBank Robotics, with the ability to vocalise its thought processes. This means the robot is no longer a “black box” and its underlying decision-making is more transparent to the user.
This can be particularly beneficial in cases when a request is not heeded. The robot can explain in layperson’s terms whether, for instance, a particular object is unreachable, the required movement is not feasible, or a component of the robot is not working properly.
In a series of experiments, the researchers sought to explore how this inner speech affects the robot’s actions. In one instance, it was decided the Pepper would help a human user set a dinner table in line with etiquette rules.
When the human user asked Pepper to contradict the rules of etiquette by placing the napkin at the wrong spot, the robot started talking to itself, concluding that the human may be confused and enquiring whether it should proceed with the action. Once the user confirmed his request, the Pepper said to itself: “This situation upsets me. I would never break the rules, but I can’t upset him, so I’m doing what he wants,” placing the napkin in the spot requested.
By comparing Pepper’s performance with and without inner speech, the researchers found Pepper had a higher task-completion rate when engaging in self-dialogue, according to the study, published in the journal iScience.
This inner speech capability could be useful in cases where robots and humans are collaborating; for example, it could be used for caregiver robots, said Antonio Chella, a professor of robotics at the University of Palermo who is also an author of the study.
“Of course, there are many other situations where this kind of technology could be annoying. So, for example, if I give a precise command: “Alexa, turn off the light,” inner speech may be not so useful, because I want the robot to just obey my command,” he said.
For now, a computational model of inner speech has been incorporated into the robot, he added. “Maybe … one day there will be a robot that spontaneously generates speech.”
Here’s a video of the thinking-out-loud robot Pepper working with its friend, the researcher. Is it really thinking?
And, now as an added treat, my favourite robot dancing its heart out. If only I could bust the moves as well as it can! Is it demonstrating intelligence, or maybe at least a little bit of soul?!! It sure is dancing! (Click on the robot to enjoy his dance moves.)
Lots of questions, right? No answers, of course; it is philosophy after all. But isn’t it fun to think about? AI, is it intelligence? And, if so, is it really artificial?!